Friedman 50 Years Later

Corporations Are Governance Mechanisms, Not Shareholder Toys

Milton Friedman’s shareholder credo is simple and catchy but has shaky foundations. Corporate directors and officers are not agents of shareholders and...

Beyond Friedman’s Doctrine: The True Purpose of the Business Corporation

The pandemic and the renewed focus on inequality and injustice arising in the wake of the death of George Floyd have accelerated...

Market Forces Already Address ESG Issues and the Issues Raised by Stakeholder Capitalism

When do market forces push firms toward stakeholder goals, rather than just shareholder goals? When do market forces push firms toward ESG...

Missing in Today’s Shareholder Value Maximization Credo: The Shareholders

Today’s corporate world is very different from the one Milton Friedman wrote in. In a world where the question of whether managers...

Which Problems Should Companies Try to Solve?

It is true that capitalism needs to be inclusive in its benefits, but 50 years on, Friedman’s shareholder primacy remains the right...

“50 Years Later, It’s Time to Reassess”: Raghuram Rajan on Milton Friedman and Maximizing Shareholder Value

The biggest problem with shareholder value maximization is that it completely turns a tin ear to politics. The alternative is to maximize...

It Is Time to Move on From Friedman’s View of the Corporation

The anti-CSR position defended by Friedman would be acceptable only under conditions that have never been met by any real-world economy. Furthermore,...

Corporations Are Already Plenty Powerful. Stakeholder Capitalism Could Make Them More So

Encouraging corporations to further step into the role of governments and civil society groups by becoming more "socially focused" risks greater depreciation...

The Real Effects of Environmental Activist Investing

A new study examines the efficacy of climate-focused investor engagements initiated by the New York City Pension System. Its findings support the...

For Whom Corporate Leaders Bargained: What the Past Can Teach Us About the Questionable Promise of Implementing Stakeholder Capitalism Today

The debate about stakeholder capitalism should seek to learn from our experience with constituency statutes, which authorized corporate leaders to take into...

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The Social Responsibility of Business Includes Profits

Profits these days are often seen as a dirty word, but it is wrong to demonize profits. A company’s responsibility is not...

Academic Gatekeepers, Real and Imagined, Are Threatening the Credibility of the Field of Political Finance 


One objective of political finance is to hold power to account. However, gatekeeping, both direct and indirect, is keeping important work from...

A Call for Comments: Have You Been Affected by Academic Gatekeeping?

On Friday, ProMarket published a piece by Renée Adams about the impact of academic gatekeeping in the political finance. Do you have...

How Big Data Fuels Big Tech’s Anticompetitive Conduct and Gatekeeping Power

Achieving a truly open internet is only possible through robust online competition free from the control of today’s digital gatekeepers like Facebook...

The Corporate Power Narrative: How Corporations Benefit from Economic Globalization

In an excerpt from their new book, Six Faces of Globalization: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why It Matters, Anthea Roberts and...

Managers Should Satisfy Only the Ethically Permissible Preferences of Shareholders

Oliver Hart and Luigi Zingales have proposed a revision to the dominant model of the objective of the firm, most famously defended...

Plagues Upon the Earth: How Wealth Intersects With Mortality

Kyle Harper’s new book, Plagues Upon the Earth: Disease and the Course of Human History, shows that the story of disease is...