How Markets in Europe Opened Up as Guild Monopolies Declined in the Sixteenth Century

Markets don’t function well if they are ridden with frictions like lack of information or lack of trust. A new working paper finds that cities in the sixteenth century where monopolies of densely networked merchant guilds declined had significantly higher levels of printing, as they were early adopters of printing technology. Additionally, these cities were found on the Atlantic coast, where traders had the greatest incentives to form new connections with unfamiliar traders.  

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When Medical Experiments Serve the Business Needs of Pharmaceutical Firms Instead of Science

The first part of a two-part interview with Daniel Goldstein, MD, an oncologist who also studies the influence of business interests on healthcare—from treating patients to conducting drug trials to holding health-related events. In the first part of this interview, we talk about capitalism and healthcare, what motivates physicians, and the effectiveness of healthcare systems in the U.S., the U.K., and Israel.  

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